The way in which soil is used is particularly important. It houses more nutrients than the other parts of the soil, if it is not protected by crop cover, it may be slowly washed away by surface run off. Among the plant nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is essential for the normal growth and yield of crop. Off-site losses of nutrients can also occur through soil erosion, runoff, leaching and burning of crop residues. (b) Nitrites in slightly acid solution will evolve gaseous nitrogen when brought in contact with certain ammonium salts with simple amines such as urea and even with non- nitrogenous sulphur compounds and carbohydrates. For example, presence of weeds in the farms may lower the level of productivity of the soil, even when the soil fertile. Soil fertility may be defined as the inherent capacity of soil to supply plant nutrients in adequate amount and suitable proportion and free from toxic substances. The fertility of soil increases if the soil contains more organic matter. Little is known that there are certain factors that actually influence and affect the actual success of their production. – (a) Natural factor and (b) Artificial factor. The loss of the top soil represents high losses of organic matter, minerals solids and plant nutrients. The fertility of soil is also dependent on the topography of soil. It is a complex situation even the interaction of some of the factors also can influence the fertility of the soil. In the following sections specific effects of some of these factors are discussed. Organic matter contains the plant nutrients. The inherent fertility has a limiting factor from which the fertility is not decreased. excessive acidity or alkalinity, the presence of toxic substances, poor physical properties or an excess or deficiency of water. Dr. P.K. The natural factors are those which influence the soil formation and the artificial factors is related to the proper use of land. Factors Affecting Distribution, Activity and Population of Soil Microorganisms, Soil microorganisms (Flora & Fauna), just like higher plants depends entirely on soil for their nutrition, growth and activity. Brad D. Brown. Social Factors: Social factors like religion, caste, race, family system, education, status of woman, … Weeds by nature of them grow fast and remove the plant nutrients from the soil. The Main Factors Affecting Soil Fertility Atmospheric Factors Solar radiation Sum of active temperatures An amount of atmospheric precipitation Distribution of atmospheric precipitation Wind regime Composition of air Lithospheric factors Relief Groundwater Soil-forming layer What As a result of which, organic matter do not decompose properly and the nutrients of organic matter does not transformed in available form of the plant. Crop rotation increases the fertility of soil. Nitrogen is mainly lost from soil by leaching. In heavy rainfall areas, the nutrients are lost by leaching. Factors Influencing the Fertility of the Soil. The loss can be reduced by adding farm waste materials to the soil. Types of Soil Fertility 3. These can be reused for the next growing cycle. 9438 West SR 28West Lebanon, IN 47991PHONE: (800) SOIL - 130, © 2016 All Rights Reserved | Precision Agronomics, Inc. | 765.893.4791. are associated with denitrification. Precision Agronomics is located at 9438 West SR 28 in West Lebanon, IN and is proud to serve: Marshfield, Johnsonville, Foster, Stone Bluff, Bismarck, and the surrounding areas. Super phosphate applied in acid soil is converted into iron or aluminium phosphate which is not soluble in water. Decline of soil fertility has been a major challenge influencing agricultural productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa as well as Malawi. Microbial Mediated Micronutrient Transformation in soil Fe Zn Cu Mo Mn 2. Organic matter is oxidised in high temperature. This would include a wide range of factors including air/soil temperature, soil fertility, soil moisture, pest damage, weed competition, and soil pH. Bulk density - Soil fertility also depends on its bulk density. The soil's overall health depends on these factors a lot. Thus a fertile soil may or may not be productive depending upon crops, marketing condition and several other factors (i.e. In growing plants and crops in a loose layer of land, soil fertility is important. Fertile soil results in high yield and better quality of plants. But every productive soil has to be fertile. The factors affecting soil fertility may be of two types; i.e. Soil productivity is the ability of the soil to produce crop per unit area. Soil Science, Soil Fertility, Types of Soil Fertility, Terms of Service Privacy Policy Contact Us, Copyright infringement takedown notification template, Pore Space: Types and Factors Affecting it | Soil, Soil Formation | Processes | Soil Science, Soil Formation: How is Soil Formed [with Factors and Processes for Class 7, 8 ,9, 10], Exam Questions with Answers on Soil Mechanics [Geotechnical Engineering], List of Objective Questions on Soil and Water Engineering (With Answers), Soil Compaction: Meaning, Compaction, Methods and Effect | Soil Engineering. A fertile soil always leads to high soil productivity However, soil productivity is affected or influenced y other factors other than the soil fertility. Contact us today for more information! Effect on soil fertility. Nitrogen is generally subjected to loss in gaseous form. Even if the soil is fertile, the level of productivity can be disrupted by the presence of weeds and even certain farming methods. The nutrient of the soil must be in the available form of plant. It is essential for proper supply of oxygen in the soil. Save For Later Print. Therefore, it's more desirable to use soil with higher moisture content to increase and ensure its fertility. On the other hand, the activities of some of the microorganisms are beneficial to each other. Low CEC indicates the possibility of easily losing nutrients by leaching. Factors Affecting EB0208 updated June 2020 Clain Jones Extension. If the parent rock contains more nutrient, the soil developed from rock contains more nutrient. The biochemical reduction of nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2) to gaseous nitrogen is often termed denitrification. Factors Affecting Soil Formation Soils form from the interplay of five main factors namely Parent Material, Time, Climate, Relief, and Organisms. Furthermore, these are some external factors that can affect soil fertility: Climate (rainfall, temperature etc.) There are various types of cropping system in India such as mono-cropping, mixed cropping, relay cropping and crop rotation. As a result of which, the fertility of that soil becomes low. The nitrifying bacteria fix nitrogen from air. They include all the practices that affect fertility, the water and air relationships and the activity of the biological agents such as insects, pests, diseases and microorganisms. Factors influencing the CEC include the soil type, the soil pH and the soil organic matter content. This will be acute if weeding is not done as soon as weeds emerge or germinate. Definition of Soil Fertility 2. The plant do not absorb nutrient if it is not soluble in water. It is generally measured in terms of inputs versus outputs, which for agronomic situations generally refers to water and/or nutrient input versus crop yield. Inherent Capacity of Soil to Supply Plant Nutrients: The nutrient contents of a soil vary according to the nature of soil. Taking medication. It shows the soil's ability to support plant and crop growth in its optimal environment. ​. – (a) Natural factor and (b) Artificial factor. The availability of nutrients depend mainly on the following factors: The plant absorbs the nutrient from the soil. Soil is the store house of plant nutrients. The soil organism brings the unavailable nutrients into the available form. Actual nutrients can be found in the soil solution and not the solid matrix. So, a farmer must determine if the cost of additional fertilizer will be repaid by the predicted additional yield. Factors Affecting Porosity of Soil. The pore-space under field conditions, are occupied at all times by air and water. xiii. Soil moisture: It is one of the important factors influencing the microbial population & their activity in … Meaning of Porosity of Soil: Pore-spaces (also called voids) in a soil consist of that portion of the soil volume not occupied by solids, either mineral or organic. As a result of which the fertility of that soil becomes low. It could either make a good crop or plant production or not at all. Soil colloids are small particles and the most active portion of the soil. iv. Factors affecting soil fertility and productivity Soil fertility is the ability of the soil to provide nutrients in proper quantities and in a balanced way for the growth of plants. Soil pH - After testing the soil, you determine the existing pH level of the soil. Decomposition of organic matter increases the nitrogen content of soil. In Africa, cocoa yields are low, partly due to soil fertility constraints and poor management. Competition begins when the supply of plant nutrients falls below the requirements of both weeds and crops. See ESA simulation and pictures of comet landing : Themajority (87%) of the respondents are farming on communal land with an averagefarm size of 2.9 ha. When referring to the soil mineral nutrients, there’s a wide gap between the total amount of mineral nutrients in the soil and their availability to the plant. There are various factors that define and contribute to soil fertility. Soils are made up of sand, organic matter, silt and clay particles. Plant kingdom is closely related with climate. Organic matter plays a key role in maintaining soil fertility. In this piece, we discuss soil fertility as well as its productivity. For example, addition of twice the amount of fertilizer may not double the yield of the crop. These micro-organisms play an important role to help plants consume nutrients which they need to grow. The soil developed from acid igneous rock (i.e. Soils with high sand content have low holding capacity for cations compared to clayey and silty soils. The fertility of soil depends mostly on the texture and structure of soil. Soil pH affects both the host plant and the bacteria involved in the symbiotic relationship. (Iii) Losses of Nutrient by Soil Erosion: Erosion is the physical removal of top soil by water and wind. (ii) Removal of Plant Nutrients by Weeds: Weeds compete with crops for mineral nutrients. Photo credit: Roman Synkevych on Unsplash. It is found by experiment that the yield does not increase remarkably by application of additional quantity of fertilizers. Soil fertility is affected by several factors such as climate, rainfall, soil biological, chemical and physical properties, etc, (Ramaru e t al., 2000). Fertile soil is rich in fundamental elements and minerals, has good aeration, water holding capacity, and good texture. 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